Pulmonary Vasodilator Response to Adenosine Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channel Activation Is Attenuated during Desflurane but Preserved during Sevoflurane Anesthesia Compared with the Conscious State

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Abstract

Background

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary vasodilator response to the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel agonist, lemakalim, compared with the response measured in the conscious state. In addition, the authors assessed the extent to which sympathetic alpha1 -adrenoreceptor inhibition and cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition modulate the vasodilator response to lemakalim.

Methods

Twenty-four conditioned male mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure the left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationship. After preconstriction with the thromboxane analogue, U46619, dose-response relationships to lemakalim were assessed on separate days in the conscious state and during sevoflurane ([nearly =] 3.5% end-tidal) and desflurane ([nearly =] 10.5% end-tidal) anesthesia ([approximately] 5 minimum alveolar concentration for each anesthetic agent). The effects of sympathetic alpha1 -adrenoreceptor inhibition (prazosin) and cyclooxygenase inhibition (indomethacin) on the pulmonary vasodilator response to lemakalim also were assessed in the conscious and desflurane-anesthetized states.

Results

Neither sevoflurane nor desflurane had a net effect on the baseline left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationship compared with the conscious state. The magnitude of the pulmonary vasodilator response to lemakalim was preserved during sevoflurane anesthesia but was attenuated (P < 0.05) during desflurane anesthesia compared with the conscious state. The attenuated lemakalim-induced vasodilator response during desflurane anesthesia was partially reversed (P < 0.05) by pretreatment with prazosin but not indomethacin.

Conclusion

These results indicate that adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel-mediated pulmonary vasodilation is preserved during sevoflurane anesthesia but is attenuated during desflurane anesthesia. The attenuated response to adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel activation during desflurane anesthesia is partially mediated by reflex sympathetic alpha1 -adrenoreceptor vasoconstriction.

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