Continuous Cardiac Output in Septic Shock by Simulating a Model of the Aortic Input Impedance: A Comparison with Bolus Injection Thermodilution

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Abstract

Background

To compare continuous cardiac output obtained by simulation of an aortic input impedance model to bolus injection thermodilution (TDCO) in critically ill patients with septic shock.

Methods

In an open study, mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock were monitored for 1 (32 patients), 2 (15 patients), or 3 (5 patients) days. The hemodynamic state was altered by varying the dosages of dopamine, norepinephrine, or dobutamine. TDCO was estimated 189 times as the series average of four automated phase-controlled injections of iced 5% glucose, spread equally over the ventilatory cycle. Continuous model-simulated cardiac output (MCO) was computed from radial or femoral artery pressure. On each day, the first TDCO value was used to calibrate the model.

Results

TDCO ranged from 4.1 to 18.2 l/min. The bias (mean difference between MCO and TDCO) on the first day before calibration was -1.92 +/- 2.3 l/min (mean +/- SD; n = 32; 95% limits of agreement, -6.5 to 2.6 l/min). The bias increased at higher levels of cardiac output (P < 0.05). In 15 patients studied on two consecutive days, the precalibration ratio TDCO:MCO on day 1 was 1.39 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- SD) and did not change on day 2 (1.39 +/- 0.34). After calibration, the bias was -0.1 +/- 0.8 l/min with 82% of the comparisons (n = 112) < 1 l/min and 58% (n = 79) < 0.5 l/min, and independent of the level of cardiac output.

Conclusions

In mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock, changes in bolus TDCO are reflected by calibrated MCO over a range of cardiac output values. A single calibration of the model appears sufficient to monitor continuous cardiac output over a 2-day period with a bias of -0.1 +/- 0.8 l/min.

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