Trends and Outcomes of Malignant Hyperthermia in the United States, 2000 to 2005

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Abstract

Background:

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially fatal pharmacogenetic disorder with an estimated mortality of less than 5%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current incidence of MH and the predictors associated with in-hospital mortality in the United States.

Methods:

The Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which is the largest all-payer inpatient database in the United States, was used to identify patients discharged with a diagnosis of MH during the years 2000–2005. The weighted exact Cochrane-Armitage test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess trends in the incidence and risk-adjusted mortality from MH, taking into account the complex survey design.

Results:

From 2000 to 2005, the number of cases of MH increased from 372 to 521 per year. The occurrence of MH increased from 10.2 to 13.3 patients per million hospital discharges (P = 0.001). Mortality rates from MH ranged from 6.5% in 2005 to 16.9% in 2001 (P < 0.0001). The median age of patients with MH was 39 (interquartile range, 23–54 yr). Only 17.8% of the patients were children, who had lower mortality than adults (0.7% vs. 14.1%, P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analyses revealed that risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was associated with increasing age, female sex, comorbidity burden, source of admission to hospital, and geographic region of the United States.

Conclusions:

The incidence of MH in the United States has increased in recent years. The in-hospital mortality from MH remains elevated and higher than previously reported. The results of this study should enable the identification of areas requiring increased focus in MH-related education.

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