Reversal of Dabigatran-induced Bleeding by Coagulation Factor Concentrates in a Rat-tail Bleeding Model and Lack of Effect on Assays of Coagulation

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Abstract

Background:

Dabigatran is a potent oral anticoagulant. Like any anticoagulant, there is an increased risk of bleeding associated with its use, and reversal may be needed in cases of severe bleeding.

Methods:

In this study, six coagulation factor concentrates (CFCs) were tested for their ability to reduce bleeding induced by oral dabigatran etexilate (30 mg/kg) in a rat-tail bleeding model (n = 5 to 8 per group): three-factor (Profilnine [Grifols Biologicals Inc., Los Angeles, CA] and Bebulin [Baxter BioScience, Westlake Village, CA]) and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (Beriplex [CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany] and Octaplex [Octapharma AG, Lachen, Switzerland]), activated prothrombin complex concentrate (Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity; Baxter AG, Vienna, Austria), and recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven; NovoNordisk, Bagsværd, Denmark). The effect of CFCs on prolongation of coagulation assays was measured. Thrombin generation after administration of each CFC was compared in vitro using human plasma (n = 5) spiked with dabigatran in concentrations corresponding to median peak (200 ng/ml) and supratherapeutic values (600 and 1,000 ng/ml).

Results:

Dabigatran resulted in an approximately three-fold increase in bleeding time, consistent with supratherapeutic dabigatran plasma levels. Beriplex (35 and 50 IU/kg), Octaplex (40 IU/kg), Profilnine (50 IU/kg), Bebulin (60 IU/kg), Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (100 U/kg), and NovoSeven (500 μg/kg) significantly decreased this prolonged bleeding time over 30 min (P < 0.001). The coagulation assays were prolonged three- to eight-fold over baseline (P = 0.01). None of the CFCs produced a consistent change in these assays that was predictive of reduced bleeding. Thrombin generation reversal was dependent on the concentration of dabigatran and each CFC; normalization occurred at the lower concentration of dabigatran with most CFCs, but not at higher concentrations.

Conclusions:

In this animal model, bleeding induced by high doses of dabigatran can be reduced by CFCs. However, routine coagulation assays do not predict this effect.

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