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H2O2 has a variety of actions in skin wounds but has been rarely studied in deep muscle tissue. Based on response to the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists after plantar incision, we hypothesized that H2O2 exerts nociceptive effects via the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in muscle.Nociceptive behaviors in rats (n = 269) and mice (n = 16) were evaluated after various concentrations and volumes of H2O2 were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle or subcutaneous tissue. The effects of H2O2 on in vivo spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity and lumbar dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro were evaluated from 26 rats and 6 mice.Intramuscular (mean ± SD: 1,436 ± 513 s) but not subcutaneous (40 ± 58 s) injection of H2O2 (100 mM, 0.6 ml) increased nociceptive time. Conditioned place aversion was evident after intramuscular (–143 ± 81 s) but not subcutaneous (–2 ± 111 s) injection of H2O2. These H2O2-induced behaviors were blocked by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists. Intramuscular injection of H2O2 caused sustained in vivo activity of dorsal horn neurons, and H2O2 activated a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro. Capsaicin nerve block decreased guarding after plantar incision and reduced nociceptive time after intramuscular H2O2. Nociceptive time after intramuscular H2O2 in transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 knockout mice was shorter (173 ± 156 s) compared with wild-type mice (931 ± 629 s).The greater response of muscle tissue to H2O2 may help explain why incision that includes deep muscle but not skin incision alone produces spontaneous activity in nociceptive pathways.