Combined Effect of Blood Cadmium and Lead Levels on Coronary Heart Disease Prediction Risk in Korean Men

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This study was designed to investigate the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk calculated using the Framingham risk score. The heavy metal data set of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2008–2010) was analyzed. The 10-year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood Cd and Pb levels in Korean men. For the highest quartile of Cd and Pb, the odds ratio (OR) of the intermediate risk and beyond for CHD (10-year risk ≥10%) compared to the lowest quartile was 6.870 (Cd, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.58–10.30) and 3.127 (Pb, 95% CI: 2.09–4.69) after adjusting for confounders, respectively. The adjusted OR of the intermediate risk and beyond for CHD (10-year risk ≥10%) in the fourth quartile of both Cd and Pb was 12.2 (95% CI: 8.0–18.5) compared to the reference group (first and second quartiles of Cd and Pb). However, the association between log-transformed blood Cd and Pb and the 10-year CHD risk was not significant in Korean women.

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