Human Endothelial Cell-Specific Molecule-1 (Endocan) and Coronary Artery Disease and Microvascular Angina

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Endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (endocan) is an immunoinflammatory marker linked to endothelial activation and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), microvascular angina (MVA), and plasma levels of endocan. We included 53 healthy individuals as controls, 40 MVA patients, and 120 patients with obstructive CAD. The severity of CAD was assessed by the Gensini and SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) scores. Endocan levels were 382.7 (313.8-470.2) pg/mL in patients with obstructive CAD; 324.3 (277.1-460.7) pg/mL in MVA group, and 268.0 (226.4-336.5) pg/mL (P < .001) in controls. Endocan levels in obstructive CAD and MVA groups were similar but both were significantly higher than for the control group (P < .001 and P = .002, respectively). In subgroup analysis, similar to the hypertensive subgroup results, endocan was still an independent predictor of presence of obstructive CAD in normotensives (odds ratio = 1.005, 95% confidence interval = 1.001-1.010, P = .024). There was also an independent positive correlation between endocan levels and SYNTAX score both in the hypertensives (β = 0.414, t = 3.21, P = .002) and in the normotensives (β = .301, t = 2.23, P = .031). In conclusion, endocan could be a common predictor of the endothelium-dependent inflammatory processes, rather than related with specific risk factors.

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