The influence of both severe chronic carotid stenosis and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on ocular tissue has been poorly evaluated. The goal of this study was to measure subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), before and after CEA, in patients with severe carotid stenosis. Consecutive patients (n = 36) with severe carotid stenosis were prospectively included. Patients (n = 19) were followed up at 1 and 3 months after CEA. The SFCT was measured bilaterally using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Preoperatively, the median SFCT of the ipsilateral eye did not differ significantly from the contralateral eye (223 vs 236 µm; P = .75). In the ipsilateral eye, the mean SFCT was significantly higher at 1 month postsurgery and the effect was maintained at 3 months (226.3 ± 17.1 at 3 months vs 210.8 ± 16.5 µm at baseline; P < .001). For the contralateral eye, the increase in SFCT reached statistical significance at 3 months (220.1 ± 11.3 at 3 months vs 214.8 ± 11.5 µm at baseline; P = .04). The mean SFCT significantly increased bilaterally after CEA, with a more noticeable effect in the ipsilateral eye. Further studies are required to determine whether EDI-OCT could be useful as a potential marker of ophthalmologic outcomes.