Surgery represents an increased risk of different perioperative complications. Endothelial function (EF) is a key mechanism responsible for cardiovascular homeostasis and is involved in thromboembolic complications. We aimed to follow changes of EF in an early postoperative period in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). Endothelial function was assessed noninvasively in 70 consecutive patients who underwent an elective THR under spinal anesthesia. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and low flow-mediated constriction capability of the brachial artery, which are indicators of EF were measured before the operation (baseline), 24 hours after the operative procedure, and 5 to 7 days postoperatively. Baseline FMD was 12.3% and decreased a day after surgery to 7.3% (P < .001). After 5 to 7 days, it gradually increased to 9.2%. However, on average, it was lower than before surgery (P < .001). The median duration of THR was 85.0 (65.0-100.0) minutes, the average hospital length of stay was 7 days. Total hip replacement is associated with an immediate decrease in FMD which remains significantly decreased 5 to 7 days after the surgery compared with the preoperative value. These results indicate that surgery provokes endothelial dysfunction and deteriorates cardiovascular homeostasis. This effect could be involved in cardiovascular complications in the postoperative period.