The aim of the study was to determine the effect of short-term hyperthermia and Hsp70 blockage on ultrastructural changes in cell organelles and nucleoli of rabbit preimplantation embryos. The embryos were cultured either at 37.5°C (control, C) or 41.5°C (hyperthermia, HT) during 6 h. The antibody against Hsp70 was added into the culture medium (4 μg/ml) of morula stage embryos from C and HT groups. After termination of the culture, the embryos were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The embryos exposed to hyperthermia showed increased volume of lipid droplets, considerable occurrence of cellular debris in the perivitelline space and slight changes in the occurrence of microvilli on the surface of trophoblastic cells. In the embryos exposed to anti-Hsp 70 at 37.5°C, there were considerable changes in mitochondria morphology, decreased volume of dense bodies in the cytoplasm and considerable changes in the occurrence of microvilli on the surface of trophoblastic cells. In the group of embryos exposed simultaneously to hyperthermia and anti-Hsp 70, mitochondria were also expanded and swollen; the volume of flocculent vesicles and lipid droplets was increased and the volume of dense bodies in the cytoplasm was diminished. General organization of the cytoplasm in groups with anti-Hsp70 was characterized by cell organelle segregation. Averaged size of the nucleolar area was significantly increased in the embryos exposed to hyperthermia, whereas in the group exposed to the anti-Hsp70 without hyperthermia it was significantly diminished. Hyperthermia also caused disintegration of compact status of the nucleoli. In presence of anti-Hsp 70, the structural changes, described within the nucleoli during hyperthermia, were not observed. In conclusion, these results document ultrastructural changes in cell organelles of rabbit preimplantation embryo caused by hyperthermia, and also changes in the nucleolar structures, at which presence of Hsp-70 inhibit these changes.