The aim of this research was to characterize the preantral ovarian follicular population in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) using light and electron microscopy. Ovaries from six mature females were collected and further fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. A total of 33273.45 ± 5789.99 preantral follicles (PFs) were estimated for the population in each ovary. Most preantral follicles were primordial (91.56%), followed by primary (6.29%) and secondary (2.15%) ones. Most PFs were morphologically normal (94.4%), and only a few were atretic (5.6%). At histology assessment, amounts of lipid droplets were observed into the oocyte cytoplasm, which was confirmed through ultrastructural analysis. This work characterizes for the first time the ovarian population of preantral follicles, total and per category, in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). The general follicles featured at primordial, primary and secondary categories are very similar to those described for other species.