This study describes the distribution of vimentin, desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and laminin in the oviduct of the immature and mature Japanese quail. The cytoskeletal proteins vimentin, desmin and SMA have been shown to be involved in cellular support, differentiation, migration and contractility. Laminin is a major component of basement membranes. Luminal epithelia in the infundibular and magnal regions of immature and mature birds exhibited strong vimentin immunoreactivity. Luminal epithelial cells exhibiting strong vimentin immunoreactivity were present in the isthmus and shell gland regions of only mature quails. Infundibular glandular grooves displayed strong vimentin immunostaining. In contrast, the glandular epithelia of the magnum, isthmus and shell gland were vimentin immunonegative. Fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells in the lamina propria of the oviductal regions studied exhibited strong vimentin immunostaining. Smooth muscle cells forming the tunica muscularis and vascular tunica media displayed strong desmin and SMA immunostaining. Strong laminin immunostaining was demonstrated in the basement membranes associated with smooth muscle cells, as well as in the basement membranes underlying the luminal and glandular epithelia. In conclusion, this study has shown that the immunolocalization of desmin, SMA and laminin in the oviduct of the Japanese quail is similar to that in the domestic fowl. However, differences in the immunoexpression of vimentin in the LE of the two avian species were shown to exist. In addition, the study has shown that the immunolocalization of vimentin in the Japanese quail varies depending on the oviductal region, as well as the developmental stage of the oviduct.