Intermediate intensity conditioning regimen containing FLAMSA, treosulfan, cyclophosphamide, and ATG for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in elderly patients with relapsed or high-risk acute myeloid leukemia

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Lower dosage of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation have reduced the toxicity of the conditioning and non-relapse mortality. The FLAMSA-RIC protocol for high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome has shown promising results in refractory disease as well as in first complete remission. Still, the RIC protocol containing 4 Gy TBI/cyclophosphamide/anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) implicates acute toxicity mainly due to TBI preventing its usage in patients with advanced age and/or severe co-morbidities. To increase feasibility and safety of the conditioning, we substituted TBI with treosulfan. Seventeen patients with relapsed or high-risk AML and either advanced age or concomitant disease were treated within a preparative regimen containing a 4-day course of chemotherapy (FLAMSA) followed by RIC comprising of treosulfan, cyclophosphamide, and ATG. After median follow-up of 12 months, the estimated incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 25% and 20%, respectively. One-year overall survival was 62%. In conclusion, FLAMSA-treosulfan/cyclophosphamide/ATG is an intermediate intensity conditioning regimen with acceptable non-relapse mortality for patients with relapsed or high-risk AML. Substituting TBI with treosulfan provides an alternative to treat elderly patients or patients with severe co-morbidities when TBI appears not feasible due to the potential of increased toxicity.

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