Genetic relationship amongst the major non-coding regions of mitochondrial DNAs in wild boars and several breeds of domesticated pigs

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We completed phylogenetic analysis of the major non-coding region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 159 animals of eight Euro-American and six East Asian domesticated pig breeds and 164 Japanese and five European wild boars. A total of 62 mtDNA haplotypes were detected. Alignment of these regions revealed nucleotide variations (including gaps) at 73 positions, including 58 sites with transition nucleotide substitutions, and two transversion substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences could not organize domestic pig breeds into discrete clusters. In addition, many of the haplotypes found in members of diverged clustering groups were found primarily in Euro-American pig breeds, indicating extensive introgression of Asian domestic pigs into European breeds. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis allocated the DNA sequences of non-coding regions into two different groups, and the deepest branchpoint of this porcine phylogeny corresponded to 86 000–136 000 years before present. This time of divergence would predate the historical period when the pig is thought to have been domesticated from the wild boar.

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