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Although the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is used both in agronomics and in research, genomic resources for this species are still limited and no microsatellite-based genetic map has been reported. Our aim was to construct a rabbit genetic map with cytogenetically mapped microsatellites so as to build an integrated genetic and cytogenetic map. A reference population of 187 rabbits comprising eight three-generation families with 10–25 offspring per family was produced. One hundred and ninety-four of 305 previously identified microsatellites were included in this study. Of these, 158 were polymorphic with two to seven alleles. The map reported here comprises 111 markers, including 104 INRA microsatellites, five microsatellites from another source and two phenotypic markers (angora and albino). Ninety markers were integrated into 20 linkage groups. The remaining 21 microsatellites mapped to separate linkage groups, 19 with a precise cytogenetic position and two with only a chromosomal assignment. The genetic map spans 2766.6 cM and covers 20 rabbit chromosomes, excluding chromosomes 20, 21 and X. The density of this map is limited, but we used it to verify the location of angora and albino on chromosomes 15q and 1q, respectively, in agreement with previously published data. This first generation genetic/cytogenetic map will help gene identification and quantitative trait loci mapping projects in rabbit.