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Fish pasteurellosis is a bacterial disease causing important losses in farmed fish, including gilthead sea bream, a teleost fish of great relevance in marine aquaculture. We report in this study a QTL analysis for resistance to fish pasteurellosis in this species. An experimental population of 500 offspring originating from eight sires and six dams in a single mass-spawning event was subjected to a disease challenge with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of fish pasteurellosis. A total of 151 microsatellite loci were genotyped in the experimental population, and half-sib regression QTL analysis was carried out on two continuous traits, body length at time of death and survival, and for two binary traits, survival at day 7 and survival at day 15, when the highest peaks of mortality were observed. Two significant QTLs were detected for disease resistance. The first one was located on linkage group LG3 affecting late survival (survival at day 15). The second one, for overall survival, was located on LG21, which allowed us to highlight a potential marker (Id13) linked to disease resistance. A significant QTL was also found for body length at death on LG6 explaining 5–8% of the phenotypic variation.