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Sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta) is a migratory form of brown trout common in the Baltic Sea. Nine populations from the southeast Baltic (Poland; Lithuania; Denmark, Bornholm; Estonia and Russia) were genotyped using iPLEX Gold technology (Sequenom) with 62 informative SNPs. A diagnostic panel of 23 SNPs was applied to estimate genetic differentiation and assess the population structure of Baltic sea trout. The highest level of pairwise FST differences was observed between the Russian (East Gulf of Finland) and Polish (Baltic main basin) populations. The lowest differences were between the two Polish and the Polish and Lithuanian populations. A genetic similarity was noted between the Estonian Riguldi River and Danish Bornholm populations, and this finding was supported by a Bayesian and factorial correspondence analysis. Diversity within populations was highest for populations from Estonia and lowest for the Lithuanian population. Genetic structure analysis indicated that individuals from the nine populations were clustered into four groups.