|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Paenibacilli are gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that are related to Bacilli but differ in the DNA encoding their 16S rRNA. Until recently, these organisms were not known to cause human disease. There are now several reports of human infection caused by a few members of this genus, most commonly by P. alvei. We report a human infection in a patient with a permacath for chronic hemodialysis who was found to have bacteremia caused by P. thiaminolyticus, which is an environmental bacterium that has never been found to cause human disease. We identified this bacterium by biochemical tests, cloning, sequencing the genomic DNA encoding its 16S rRNA, growth characteristics, and electron microscopic studies. This constitutes the first report of a human infection caused by this organism.