Impact of family environment on the development of tic disorders: Epidemiologic evidence for an association

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


BACKGROUND:Although family education generally is recommended in the treatment of tic disorders, few studies have focused on the relationship between family environment and diagnosis of tic disorders.METHODS:Presence of DSM-IV tic disorders was determined in a general population of 921 children in Korea from 2008 to 2009. Clinical risk factors were assessed, including comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; family-related factors such as the number of family members and primary caretaker of the child; and socioeconomic factors in the form of paternal education level and household yearly income. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the association between a list of clinical, familial, and social variables and the odds of developing tic disorders.RESULTS:At Bonferroni corrected thresholds, a higher risk of tic disorders was significantly associated with the number of changes in primary caretaker, whereas a lower risk was associated with increasing number of children in the family.CONCLUSIONS:Family-related environmental factors may play a role in the development or exacerbation of tic disorders. The results advocate the importance of family education when treating children with tic disorders, and further research is needed on the contextual risk factors of tic disorders.

    loading  Loading Related Articles