Preface
The Basic Biology of SERMs
Nuclear Receptors, Coregulators, Ligands, and Selective Receptor Modulators
Structure-Function Relationships in Estrogen Receptors and the Characterization of Novel Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators with Unique Pharmacological Profiles
Capitalizing on the Complexities of Estrogen Receptor Pharmacology in the Quest for the Perfect SERM
Developing Animal Models for Analyzing SERM Activity
Androgen Receptor: Structural Domains and Functional Dynamics after Ligand-Receptor Interaction
Tissue-Specific Estrogen Biosynthesis and Metabolism
Cancer Treatment and Prevention
The Past, Present, and Future of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation
Use of SERMs for the Adjuvant Therapy of Early-Stage Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer Prevention with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
The Role of Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Prevention
The Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) Trial
The Italian Breast Cancer Prevention Trial with Tamoxifen
A Brief Review of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS), the Other Current Breast Cancer Prevention Trials, and Proposals for Future Trialsa
The MORE Trial: Multiple Outcomes for Raloxifene Evaluation
Quality of Life and Tamoxifen in a Breast Cancer Prevention Trial
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular Trials of Estrogen Replacement Therapy
The Effects of Estrogen and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Effects on Serum Lipoproteins and Vascular Function in Postmenopausal Women and in Hypercholesterolemic Men
Effects of Estrogen and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Hemostasis and Inflammation
Rationale and Overview of the Raloxifene Use for the Heart (RUTH) Trial
Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis
Preventing and Treating Osteoporosis
The Paradox of Small Changes in Bone Density and Reductions in Risk of Fracture with Raloxifene
SERMs, Estrogen, and Cognitive Function
Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Cognitive and Brain Aging
Estrogens, Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators, and Dementia: What Is the Evidence?
Estrogen Replacement Therapy for the Potential Treatment or Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Reproductive and Related Endocrine Considerations
The Effect of SERMs on the Endometrium
Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Reproductive Tissues Other Than Endometrium
The Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Parameters of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
Translation of Basic Research: Finding the Perfect SERM
What Would Be the Properties of an Ideal SERM?
Weighing the Benefits and Risks in Clinical Trials and Practice
Benefit/Risk Assessment of SERM Therapy
The Estimation and Use of Absolute Risk for Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators for Preventing Breast Cancer
SERMs, Ethnicity, and Clinical Trials
Raloxifene: Risks and Benefits
Defining Benefits and Risks for SERMs in Clinical Trials and Clinical Practice
Roles of Industry, Government, and Academia in SERM Development
Developing a SERM: Stringent Preclinical Selection Criteria Leading to an Acceptable Candidate (WAY-140424) for Clinical Evaluation
The Breast Cancer Continuum
The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) at the National Cancer Institute
FDA Review Practices and Priorities for Drugs Used in Cancer Treatmenta
Tamoxifen for the Reduction in the Incidence of Breast Cancer in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancera
Negotiating Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trial Agreements
Conclusions
Opportunities for Future Research
Timeline of Key Events in SERM Development
Estrogen Receptor-active Compounds, Estrogens and SERMs, of Historical and Current Interest
Model of Estrogen Receptor (ER) Action
Action of SERMs in Target Tissues**