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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in southern China where genetic abnormalities and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are critical in the pathogenesis of the disease. Circulating EBV-DNA has been shown to improve prognostication and monitoring of NPC patients. Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment for early disease and concurrent cisplatin/radiotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival in locoregionally advanced disease. Ongoing studies of targeting agents and immunotherapeutic approaches may further improve treatment results.