Clinical activity of abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after enzalutamide


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Abstract

BackgroundAbiraterone acetate and enzalutamide both improve outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Optimal sequencing for these agents and whether cross-resistance occurs is unknown.MethodsMulticentre review of patients with mCRPC treated with abiraterone acetate and prednisone after progressing on enzalutamide. Primary objective was to determine abiraterone acetate response.ResultsThirty patients identified from four North American centres. At abiraterone initiation, median age was 70 years (56–84 years); 70% had ECOG performance status of 0–1; all had prior docetaxel. Median prior enzalutamide treatment duration was 41 weeks (6–95 weeks), with 70% (21 of 30) having a ≥30% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline. Median abiraterone acetate treatment duration was 13 weeks (1–52). No objective radiographic responses were observed. Median abiraterone time to progression (PSA, objective or symptomatic) was 15.4 weeks [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.7–20.2]. Median overall survival was 50.1 weeks (95% CI 28.3–72.0). Three patients had a ≥30% PSA decline with abiraterone. Two of these patients had PSA progression as best response with prior enzalutamide.ConclusionsIn this study of patients progressing after enzalutamide, treatment with abiraterone was associated with a modest response rate and brief duration of effect. Primary progression on enzalutamide may not preclude a response to abiraterone.

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