|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The epidemiological evidence on possible relationships between coffee consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk by subtype of the disease (localized, advanced) and fatal PCa risk is limited.A population-based cohort of 44 613 Swedish men aged 45–79 years was followed up from January 1998 through December 2010 for incidence of localized (n = 2368), advanced (n = 918) and fatal (n = 515) PCa. We assessed the associations between coffee consumption and localized, advanced and fatal PCa risk using competing-risk regressions. We examined possible effect modification by body mass index (BMI).For localized PCa, each one cup increase in daily coffee consumption was associated with a 3% reduced risk [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.95–0.99]. For advanced and fatal PCa, we found a non-significant inverse association; each one cup increase was associated with a 2% reduced risk of advanced [SHR (95% CI) = 0.98 (0.95–1.02)] and fatal PCa [SHR (95% CI) = 0.98 (0.93–1.03)]. We observed evidence of effect modification by BMI for localized PCa (Pinteraction = 0.03); the inverse association was stronger among overweight and obese men (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) compared with normal-weight men (BMI < 25 kg/m2).We observed a clear inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of localized PCa, especially among overweight and obese men.