Granulocyte transfusions in hematologic malignancy patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: outcomes and complications


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Abstract

BackgroundGranulocyte transfusions (GTXs) have been used successfully as an adjunctive treatment option for invasive infections in some neutropenic patients with underlying hematologic malignancy (HM).Patients and methodsWe sought to determine the impact of GTX as an adjunct to antifungal therapy in 128 patients with HM and prolonged neutropenia (≥14 days) with a proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA) infection by retrospectively reviewing our institutional database.ResultsFifty-three patients received GTX and 75 did not. By univariate analysis, patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis who received GTX were less likely to respond to antifungal therapy (P = 0.03), and more likely to die of IA (P = 0.009) when compared with the non-GTX group. Among patients who received GTX, 53% developed a pulmonary reaction. Furthermore, IA-related death was associated with the number of GTX given (P = 0.018) and the early initiation of GTX within 7 days after starting antifungal therapy (P = 0.001). By multivariate competing risk analysis, patients who received GTX were more likely to die of IA than patients who did not receive GTX (P = 0.011).ConclusionsOur study suggests that GTX does not improve response to antifungal therapy and is associated with worse outcomes of IA infection in HM patients, particularly those with pulmonary involvement.

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