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TRPS-1 is a new GATA transcription factor that is differentially expressed in breast cancer (BC) where it been found recently to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).We carried out a quantitative immunohistochemistry (qIHC) analysis of TRPS-1 expression in 341 primary-stage I–III BC samples in relation to patient clinical characteristics as well as its prognostic value, especially in an estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) subgroup.Higher TRPS-1 expression was significantly associated with a number of clinical and pathological characteristics as well as with improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Among stage I/II ER+ BC patients who received endocrine therapy alone, those with high TRPS-1 expression had significantly longer OS and DFS. There was also a strong association between TRPS-1 levels and the EMT marker E-cadherin in the ER+ invasive ductal carcinoma cases. Analysis of gene expression data on a panel of BC lines found that TRPS-1 expression was low or absent in BC lines having enriched mesenchymal features.Our data indicated that TRPS-1 is an independent prognostic marker in early-stage BC and a new EMT marker that can distinguish patients with ER+ BC who will respond longer to adjuvant endocrine therapy.