This review discusses the risk of cardiac events and genotype-based management of LQTS. We describe here the genetic background of long QT syndrome and the eleven different genes for ion-channels and a structural anchoring protein associated with that disorder. Clinical Background section discusses the risk of cardiac events associated with different LQTS types. Management and Prevention section describes in turn gene-specific therapy, which was based on the identification of the gene defect and the dysfunction of the associated transmembrane ion channel. In patients affected by LQTS, genetic analysis is useful for risk stratification and for making therapeutic decisions. A recent study reported a quite novel pathogenic mechanism for LQTS and suggested that treatments aimed at scaffolding proteins rather than specific ion channels may be an alternative to antiarrhythmic strategy in the future.