Steroid-responsive, progressive, focal measles virus brain infection

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Chronic measles virus infection of the brain causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a progressive, relentless fatal disorder. We report a 52-year-old male who developed focal, chronic persistent measles virus infection of the brain following interferon and ribavirin therapy for hepatitis C, and who responded to steroid therapy. This case, diametrically different from SSPE, has 2 unique features, its focal nature and its permissive response to steroids, that may add to the understanding of the pathogenesis of SSPE and the mechanism enabling viruses to evade the immune response and establish persistent brain infection. Ann Neurol 2014;75:967–970

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