Concerted escalation of dose and dosing duration in a phase I study of the oral camptothecin gimatecan (ST1481) in patients with advanced solid tumors

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Abstract

Background

Gimatecan is an orally bioavailable camptothecin analogue with preclinical findings of promising antitumor activity. A phase I design of concerted dose escalation and dosing duration was implemented to assess the potential schedule dependency of tolerability that emerged from animal studies.

Patients and methods

Gimatecan was given daily for five consecutive days per week for 1, 2 or 3 weeks every 28 days. Plasma levels of total gimatecan were measured on the first and the last day of treatment in each schedule.

Results

Overall, 108 patients were treated with 0.8–7.2 mg/m2 of gimatecan per cycle. The main toxicity was myelosuppression with dose-limiting thrombocytopenia. In the 1-, 2- and 3-week schedule, the maximum tolerated doses were 4.5, 5.6 and 6.4 mg/m2. Diarrhea and asthenia were of low grade and of minor clinical relevance, while the higher incidence of nausea and vomiting in the 1-week schedule required the use of antiemetic prophylaxis. Due to the prolonged half-life (∼77 h), the plasma concentration of gimatecan increased from the first to the last day of dosing. Six partial responses were observed.

Conclusions

Tolerability of gimatecan was schedule dependent. Further testing with schedules taking into account its long persistence in human plasma is worthwhile.

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