Risk for incident and fatal prostate cancer in men with a family history of any incident and fatal cancer

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Background: Familial clustering of incident prostate cancer and some cancers at other discordant sites has been reported. Less is known about familial clustering of fatal prostate cancer with any fatal discordant cancers. Estimates on familial aggregation based on mortality are free from bias of overdiagnosis.

Patients and methods: We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for incident prostate cancer for relatives of patients with any common cancer and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for death in prostate cancer for relatives of individuals who died from cancer. Similar risks were determined for any common cancer when relatives were affected by prostate cancer.

Results: We observed familial aggregation of incident and fatal prostate cancers. Familial clustering (SIRs increased) of prostate cancer and of cancers at discordant sites was found for breast, ovarian, and kidney cancers and melanoma. Also, fatal prostate cancer clustered with these and cervical cancers (SMRs increased).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that familial aggregation of prostate and breast cancers are not due to shared screening habits. The data on the association of cancers at discordant sites might be useful for clinical counseling and for mechanistic studies searching explanations to the familial clustering between discordant cancers.

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