Benzodiazepine Allergy With Anesthesia Administration: A Review of Current Literature

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Abstract

The incidence of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions has been reported to vary between 1: 3500 and 1: 20,000 cases with a mortality rate ranging from 3 to 9%. Clinical signs present as skin rash, urticaria, angioedema, bronchospasm, tachycardia, bradycardia, and hypotension. Rapid identification and treatment are crucial to overall patient prognosis, as delayed intervention is associated with increased mortality. Diagnosis may be confirmed with clinical presentation, serum tryptase levels, and skin test results. While the main causative agents in anesthetic practice are typically neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBs), latex, and antibiotics, this review aims to discuss recognition, management, and preventive measures in perioperative anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions from benzodiazepine administration.

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