Blepharospasm is a cranial nerve dysfunction in which involuntary and uncontrollable forcible lid closure occurs. Surgical treatment is far from ideal, but the condition can be improved by sectioning the branches of the facial nerve plexus which supply the orbicularis oculi, the frontalis and corrugator muscles, and the midfacial muscles. Not all patients with blepharospasm should be operated upon, since they may expect too much or may enjoy the attention their invalidism has given them.
Ectropion of one or both lower lids may occur, and the most severe of all complications is recurrence. This may happen despite a careful microscopic search for the nerve fibers and their division and avulsion. Blepharospasm patients often require considerable psychological support.