Risk Factors for Urethrocutaneous Fistula Repair After Hypospadias Surgery: A Retrospective Study

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We review our experience in urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) repair after hypospadias surgery to investigate the risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.


Two hundred eleven patients had undergone UCF repair in our department from January 2005 to December 2015. This study included 185 patients who were followed up for more than 6 months. The age of patients, size, site and number of UCFs, number of UCF repairs, urethral complications other than UCF, and postoperative infection were included as potential risk factors. Binary logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Stratified analysis and assessment of additive interaction were performed to have a better understanding of the relation between the risk factors.


Urethrocutaneous fistula repairs failed in 38 patients (20.5%) at first attempt. In the univariate analysis, size of UCFs (P = 0.012), times of UCF repair (P = 0.008), and postoperative infection (P = 0.044) were statistically related with the outcome of surgery. In the multivariate analysis, only the size of UCFs (P = 0.030; adjusted OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.09–5.36) and times of repair (P = 0.008; adjusted OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.35–7.07) were identified as risk factors for unsuccessful outcome. We had consistent results in the stratified analysis. No additive or multiplicative interaction between the 2 risk factors was found.


Our study suggested that UCF repairs after hypospadias surgery were easier to fail if one of the UCFs was larger than 2 mm or it had been repaired repeatedly. But when both factors existed, the increase of the risk was not statistically significant. The age of patients, site and number of UCFs, complications other than UCF, and postoperative infection were not significantly related to the success rate of UCF repair.

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