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Peritendinous adhesion is the most common complication after tendon surgery, particularly in zone II of the hand. Prevention of inflammation around the tendon, which develops after trauma and surgery, can decrease the tendon adhesion formation. This study compares the effect of some anti-inflammatory cytokines with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the tensile strength and in prevention of peritendinous adhesion formation.Sixteen rabbits were allocated equally into 4 groups. Tendons of the index and ring fingers in zone II of the right hind paw were cut in all animals and then repaired. Interferon (IFN)-α in group 1, 5-FU in group 2, normal saline in group 3, and IFN-β in group 4 were locally applied to the repaired sites. Three weeks later, tensometric and histopathologic evaluations were performed.The force required for removing the tendon from the sheath was not different between the groups (P = 0.130), but the time required for removal was significantly shorter in 5-FU group (P = 0.049). The strength of repair was not different between the groups in terms of force and time needed for rupture (P = 0.11 and 0.67, respectively). In histopathologic examination, normal architecture of the tendon and peritendon environment was less disturbed in the IFN groups, especially in IFN-β specimens.Local application of 5-FU significantly reduced peritendinous adhesion. Local IFN-α and IFN-β had no significant effect on the prevention of peritendinous adhesion formation. The strength of the repair was not affected by these cytokines and 5-FU.