TWIST1 Overexpression is Associated with Nodal Invasion and Male Sex in Primary Colorectal Cancer

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Abstract

Background

TWIST1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that has been involved in tumor progression and metastasis in several cancer types, although no evidence has been provided yet on its implication in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Methods

We examined the expression pattern of TWIST1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in 54 colorectal cancer biopsies compared with each respective adjacent normal mucosa by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodology.

Results

TWIST1 mRNA was found significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer samples compared to nontumorous colon mucosa (P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that TWIST1 mRNA levels are significantly increased in patients with nodal invasion and, interestingly, a significant correlation with patient sex was also found.

Conclusions

Evidence for upregulation of TWIST1 mRNA in colorectal cancer is provided, suggesting its implication in the onset of malignant progression of this disease. In addition, significant higher levels of TWIST1 mRNA were found in men than in women, suggesting a possible transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 by sexual hormones. The use of TWIST1 as a new prognostic marker of advanced malignancy, and as a potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer, is proposed.

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