Two hundred thirty-four patients with extensive ulcerative colitis from the city of Göteborg, Sweden have been followed up and the cumulative risk of development of cancer of the large bowel was estimated. These patients constitute all persons in this region who developed an extensive ulcerative colitis between 1951 and 1974. All patients were followed up until December 1975. The mean observation time was 8.5 years, median value six years. Fifteen patients developed carcinoma of the large bowel. Five of the 15 patients were still alive in December 1975. The expected number of colorectal carcinomas in a matched reference group was 0.49. The cumulative incidence of carcinoma 25 years after the onset of colitis for the whole group of patients was 34% and for those who developed the disease before 25 years of age it was 43%.