A survey was undertaken of 558 men with duodenal ulcer who had been treated ten to 16 years previously by truncal vagotomy and drainage, truncal vagotomy and antrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy. Of the 558, 65 had died and 111, presumed living, could not be traced, leaving 382 available for assessment. Between 75 and 85% of the traced patients were considered to have an excellent or very good result, which is a slight improvement on the previously published results in this same group of patients at five to eight years follow-up. Some of the side effects of operation had diminished slightly in frequency and there had been no significant increase in the incidence of recurrent ulceration since the previous survey. Anemia was an uncommon finding. As between the various forms of operation, truncal vagotomy and antrectomy and subtotal gastrectomy demonstrated significantly better protection against proven recurrent ulcer than did truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty (p < 0.05). Compared with truncal vagotomy and gastroenterostomy, however, the results of both resection operations, though better, did not achieve statistical significance at p = 0.5 level (p < 0.1). In regard to Visick gradings the resection procedures had better scores, but the differences were not significant at the p = 0.05 level, except for vagotomy and antrectomy as compared with vagotomy and pyloroplasty. But it is stressed that in formulating a policy of surgical therapy for duodenal ulcer the greater inherent immediate risks of resection operations need to be borne in mind.