The object of this study was to compare the ultrastructure pulmonary effects of the infusion of homologous and heterologous serum albumin solution in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock in baboons. Adult baboons subjected to hemorrhagic shock were resuscitated with either baboon serum albumin, human serum albumin, or Ringer's lactate solution. The lungs were fixed in vivo with potassium pyroantimony, a solution which produces electron dense interstitial precipitation of sodium. The lungs from animals resuscitated with baboon serum albumin showed evidence of interstitial edema, including dispersion of collagen fibers, interstitial smudging and increased interstitial sodium concentrations. Similar changes were seen following human serum albumin infusions. Lung tissue from animals treated with Ringer's lactate solution showed minimal changes from normal. These results suggest that interstitial pulmonary edema develops after either homologous or heterologous scrum albumin infusion in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock in baboons.