The metabolic and hormonal effect of glucose loads, ranging from 125 to 504 g/70 kg/day, were studied in severely injured patients. There was little or no correlation of glucose intake with nitrogen balance, plasma glucose, fatty acid concentrations, or epinephrine excretion. Increased norepinephrine excretion correlated with and may have resulted from increased glucose intake. Serum glucagon concentrations averaged 320 pg/ml and were not depressed by glucose intake. Insulin concentrations rose with glucose intake but were low for the level of plasma glucose. Glucose oxidation and non-oxidative metabolism, including glycogen deposition, correlated well with glucose intake. Gluconcogenesis from alanine was much higher than normal but was completely suppressed at very high intakes. The data imply that cycling of glucose, with glycerol, glycogen, or both, increased with increasing glucose intake.