A Multi-institutional Comparison of Perioperative Outcomes of Robotic and Open Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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Abstract

Objectives:

Limited data exist comparing robotic and open approaches to pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We performed a multicenter comparison of perioperative outcomes of robotic PD (RPD) and open PD (OPD).

Methods:

Perioperative data for patients who underwent postlearning curve PD at 8 centers (8/2011–1/2015) were assessed. Univariate analyses of clinicopathologic and treatment factors were performed, and multivariable models were constructed to determine associations of operative approach (RPD or OPD) with perioperative outcomes.

Results:

Of the 1028 patients, 211 (20.5%) underwent RPD (4.7% conversions) and 817 (79.5%) underwent OPD. As compared with OPD, RPD patients had higher body mass index, rates of prior abdominal surgery, and softer pancreatic remnants, whereas OPD patients had a higher percentage of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases, and greater proportion of nondilated (<3 mm) pancreatic ducts. On multivariable analysis, as compared with OPD, RPD was associated with longer operative times [mean difference = 75.4 minutes, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5–133.3, P = 0.01], reduced blood loss (mean difference = −181 mL, 95% CI −355–(−7.7), P = 0.04) and reductions in major complications (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% CI 0.47–0.85, P = 0.003). No associations were demonstrated between operative approach and 90-day mortality, clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula and wound infection, length of stay, or 90-day readmission. In the subset of 522 (51%) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, operative approach was not a significant independent predictor of margin status or suboptimal lymphadenectomy (<12 lymph nodes harvested).

Conclusions:

Postlearning curve RPD can be performed with similar perioperative outcomes achieved with OPD. Further studies of cost, quality of life, and long-term oncologic outcomes are needed.

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