Molecular Evidence for Monoclonal Skip Progression in Main Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas

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Abstract

Objective:

To clarify clonality of distinct multisegmental main duct (MD)-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) using microarray analysis.

Background:

IPMNs represent a pancreatic ductal cell field defect, which causes multiple occurrences of lesions. In addtion, it has been speculated that MD-IPMNs display features of monoclonal skip progression.

Methods:

Total RNA was extracted from fresh-frozen tissue samples of metachronous MD-IPMNs and nonneoplastic pancreas tissue from the same pancreas from two individuals, and whole human genome microarray analysis was performed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 28 distinct IPMNs were then collected from 12 patients, genomic DNA was extracted, and GNAS/KRAS mutational status was investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to validate the expression pattern of the indicated proteins.

Results:

Microarray analysis revealed that metachronous MD-IPMNs from the same individual displayed pair-wise correlation coefficients of 0.9523 and 0.9512. In contrast, MD-IPMNs of the same histological grade from different individuals displayed coefficients of 0.8092 and 0.8211. Scatter plot analysis revealed that metachronous MD-IPMNs from the same individual displayed a closer linear relationship. Furthermore, heat map and hierarchical cluster analyses revealed that metachronous MD-IPMNs from the same individual were classified in the same branch, and the gene expression patterns were similar. The GNAS/KRAS mutational statuses of distinct MD-IPMNs were consistent with each other. Immunohistochemical assessment of five specific proteins demonstrated that the same expression pattern between two lesions was observed in 95% of the samples.

Conclusions:

These findings using molecular analyses indicate that MD-IPMNs might display features of monoclonal skip progression.

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