Amphotericin B in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) nanoparticles against paracoccidioidomycosis


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Abstract

ObjectivesThe present study reports on the preparation and testing of a desoxycholate amphotericin B (D-AMB) sustained delivery system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) polymeric blends (Nano-D-AMB) aimed at reducing the number of AMB administrations required to treat mycosis.MethodsBALB/c mice were infected with the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis intravenously to mimic the chronic form of paracoccidioidomycosis. At 30 days post-infection, the animals were treated with Nano-D-AMB [6 mg/kg of encapsulated D-AMB, intraperitoneally (ip), interval of 72 h] or D-AMB (2 mg/kg, ip, interval of 24 h). Drug efficacy was investigated by the fungal burden recovery from tissues. Toxicity was assessed by renal and hepatic biochemical parameters, physical appearance of the animals and haematological investigation. The control groups used were non-infected and the infected mice mock treated with PBS.ResultsNano-D-AMB presented results comparable to free D-AMB, with a marked antifungal efficacy. The Nano-D-AMB-treated group presented lower loss of body weight and absence of stress sign (piloerection and hypotrichosis) observed after D-AMB treatment. No renal [blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine] or hepatic (pyruvic and oxalacetic glutamic transaminases) biochemical abnormalities were found. The micronucleus assay showed no significant differences in both the micronucleus frequency and percentage of polychromatic erythrocytes for Nano-D-AMB, indicating the absence of genotoxicity and cytotoxic effects.ConclusionsThe D-AMB-coated PLGA–DMSA nanoparticle showed antifungal efficacy, fewer undesirable effects and a favourable extended dosing interval. Nano-D-AMB comprises an AMB formulation able to lessen the number of drug administrations. Further studies would elucidate whether Nano-D-AMB would be useful to treat systemic fungal infections such as paracoccidioidomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis.

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