Can phylogenetic type predict resistance development?

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ObjectivesTo determine whether phylogenetic type is associated with the development of multidrug resistance to antibiotics.MethodsUrinary tract infection (UTI) isolates from three hospitals in Pakistan were collected over a period of 10 months, and analysed in terms of causative bacterial species and drug susceptibility.ResultsMultidrug resistance was widespread and resistance frequencies were >50% for several of the most commonly used antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins for Escherichia coli isolates. The great majority of E. coli isolates remained susceptible to meropenem and fosfomycin. Sixty E. coli isolates were analysed in detail to determine correlations between resistance phenotypes and genotypes, mutation rates and phylogenetic group. Most isolates had elevated mutation rates, suggesting this was being selected. The majority of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates carried a specific set of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA and parC (S83L, D87N, S80I and E84V). In addition, 67% of the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates carried one or more horizontally transmissible determinants of resistance to ciprofloxacin, including aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qepA, qnrA and qnrB. There was a significant correlation between resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, being an extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer, being resistant to ciprofloxacin and belonging to phylogenetic group B2.ConclusionsThe data suggest that features of the bacterial genotype might facilitate the development of multidrug resistance in particular lineages. Better understanding of the mechanistic basis for correlations between drug resistance and genotype could potentially be exploited to develop molecular tools for the prediction of resistance development.

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