Influenza virus infection increases susceptibility to bacterial infection and mortality in humans. Although the efficacy of approved intravenous peramivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, against influenza virus infection has been reported, its efficacy against bacterial co-infection, which occurs during the period of viral shedding, was not fully investigated. To further understand the significance of treatment with peramivir, we assessed the efficacy of peramivir against a bacterial co-infection model in mice caused by clinically isolated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.Methods:
Mice were infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Peramivir was intravenously administered after the viral infection. At 2 days post viral infection, the mice were infected with S. pneumoniae. Peramivir efficacy was measured by the survival rates and viral titers, bacterial titers, or proinflammatory cytokine concentrations in lung homogenates.Results:
Peramivir treatment reduced the mortality of mice infected with influenza virus and S. pneumoniae. The survival rate in the peramivir-treated group was significantly higher than that in the oseltamivir-treated group. Viral titers and proinflammatory cytokine responses in the peramivir-treated group were significantly lower than those in the oseltamivir-treated group until at 2 days post viral infection. Bacterial titer was significantly lower in the peramivir-treated group than in the oseltamivir-treated group at 4 days post viral infection.Conclusion:
These results demonstrated that peramivir inhibits viral replication, consequently leading to bacterial clearance and prevention of mortality during severe murine bacterial co-infection, which occurs during the period of viral shedding, with the efficacy of peramivir being superior to that of oseltamivir.