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Background: We aimed to explore the association between urinary alpha1-microglobulin (A1M) levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese population. Study: We performed a cross-sectional study among 2,215 Chinese who attended their annual health examination at First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. Urinary A1M-creatinine ratio and other clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. Results: A total of 20.9% of subjects fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NAFLD. NAFLD subjects had significantly higher urinary A1M-creatinine ratios. These levels were positively associated with NAFLD prevalence. The association between A1M-creatinine ratio and NAFLD was independent of hyperglycemia status. Stepwise regression showed that urinary A1M-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with the risk for NAFLD. Urinary A1M-creatinine ratio was an independent factor predicting advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 ≥1.3) in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: Our results showed a significant association between urinary A1M-creatinine ratio and NAFLD.