Cystine and Theanine Improve Survival after Gut Ischemia-Reperfusion

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Background and Aim: Oral administration of cystine and theanine (CT) may modulate antioxidant glutathione (GSH) metabolism, thereby improving outcomes after gut ischemia reperfusion. Methods: Experiment 1: Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 35) were assigned to a Vehicle (n = 11), a CT140 (n = 14), or a CT280 (n = 10) group. The CT140 and 280 groups were given CT at respective dosages of 140 and 280 mg/kg (cystine: theanine = 5: 2) once daily via gavage for 5 days. All mice underwent 75-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Survival after reperfusion was observed. Experiment 2: Mice (n = 67) were pretreated for 5 days (Vehicle: n = 24, CT280: n = 20, vehicle/sham: n = 23). The Vehicle and CT280 groups underwent 60-min SMA occlusion. Levels of GSH, the oxidized form of GSH, Glutathione-S-S-Glutathione (GSSG), and GSH-related amino acids (cysteine and glutamic acid) in the small intestine, and plasma cytokine (IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα) levels, were evaluated before (0 h), 3, 6, or 9 h after reperfusion. Results: Experiment 1: The CT280 group showed significantly better survival than the Vehicle group. Experiment 2: Gut GSSG, cysteine, and glutamic acid levels were higher in the CT280 than in the Vehicle group after reperfusion. Plasma IL-6 and TNFα levels rose more rapidly in the CT280 than in the Vehicle group. Conclusion: Oral administration of CT improves survival after gut I/R, possibly through the modulation of the GSH-redox cycle and cytokine responses.

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