Optical fiber microarrays have been used to screen saliva from patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to ascertain the efficacy of dialysis. We have successfully identified markers in saliva that correlate with kidney disease. Standard assay chemistries for these markers have been converted to disposable test strips such that patients may one day be able to monitor their clinical status at home. Details of these developments are described. In addition, saliva from asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is being screened for useful diagnostic markers. Our goal is to develop a multiplexed assay for these protein and nucleic acid biomarkers for diagnosing the cause and severity of pulmonary exacerbations, enabling more effective treatment to be administered. These results are reported in the second part of this article.