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The effects of NCX knockout were determined in a variety of cardiac cell models. Those of the mouse and rat ventricles, and of atrial cells in other species behave similarly to the experiments on mouse ventricle showing only small effects, and considerable tolerance of NCX knockout. Models of ventricular cells with high action potential plateaus, however, are more sensitive and require compensatory mechanisms to adjust other conductance parameters to enable the cells to resist NCX knockout. The effects can therefore be expected to be species-specific, and it is not possible to extrapolate the mouse results to those that may occur in the Guinea pig or human.