Optimizing treatments for anxiety by age and genetics

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Abstract

This paper highlights recent human neuroimaging and cross-species developmental and genetic studies that examine how fear regulation varies by age and the individual, especially during the period of adolescence, when there is a peak in the prevalence of anxiety disorders. The findings have significant implications for understanding who may be at risk for anxiety disorders and for whom, and when, an exposure-based therapy may be most effective. We provide proof of concept for targeting treatment to the individual as a function of age and genetics, inferred from mouse and human studies, and suggest optimization of treatment for nonresponders.

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