Multiple daily injections of insulin versus continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

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Abstract

Aims

The aim was to evaluate the outcome of pregnancies with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) treated from the first trimester with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple daily injections (MDI).

Methods

In a retrospective, observational study, we matched 64 CSII patients for age, age at onset and duration of diabetes and HbA1c in the first trimester with 64 MDI pregnancies. We analysed carbohydrate metabolism, insulin requirements, development of PIH, progression of retinopathy and fetal outcome.

Results

In CSII group, we found a significantly smaller insulin requirement both at the beginning of pregnancy and before delivery, significant decrease in HbA1c levels and significantly smaller number of hypoglycaemic episodes in the second trimester and significantly more hyperglycaemic episodes in the first trimester. In both groups, maternal, fetal and perinatal outcomes were similar and the number of hypo- and hyperglycaemic episodes decreased throughout pregnancy.

Conclusion

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes is associated with a reduced number of hypoglycaemia and decreased insulin requirement. We noted no difference in perinatal outcome comparing women on multiple insulin injections with those on continuous insulin infusion.

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