The ability of Streptomyces species to act as biocontrol agents for plant pathogens via induced systemic resistance has been demonstrated and considerable efforts have been made in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of Streptomyces–host plant–phytopathogen interactions. Here, we have assessed the ability of Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces antibioticus and Streptomyces champavatii to provide disease protection against Rhizoctonia solani in Solanum lycopersicon and have also examined associated changes in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes. The production of H2O2 at the second day after pathogen inoculation (dapi) was observed to be 1.1-fold higher in Streptomyces-treated plants, when compared to untreated inoculated control plants. A similar increase in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed at fourth dapi whereas increased activities of guaiacol reductase and glutathione peroxidase were observed at fifth dapi. Likewise, LPO reached a maximum at sixth dapi in untreated inoculated plants while in Streptomyces-treated plants it was observed to be 1.3–1.5-fold less when compared to untreated inoculated control plants. This study offers novel insights into the mechanisms of priming by Streptomyces and highlights their capacity to activate plant defence responses generated by biotic stress through induction of antioxidant enzymes along with improved reactive oxygen species management.